Science

Abdulaziz Issa Sep 18, 2022, 9:59 PM Oct 11, 2022, 7:40 AM
Plants have developed very sophisticated mechanisms to recognize a foreign organism and defend itself from it. Plants have several preformed physical barrier (e.g., wax layer, trichomes) and chemical (toxins), to prevent the attack from disease causing organism. In case of bio-trophic pathogen, in addition to physical barrier, plants activate a multilayered innate immune system to protect themselves against pathogen attack. The plant immunity response typically consists of two stages: pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) (Jones and Dangl, 2006). The first layer of plant’s innate immunity is called PAMP or MAMP or NAM-triggered immunity which is activated following the detection of non self epitopes by extracellular pattern recognition receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PAMPs include molecules which are parts of molecules accidently released by an invading pathogen or present as a structural component at the pathogen’s surface such as lipopolysaccharide and chitin, the cell wall components of bacteria and fungi, as well as bacterial flagellin or virus-derived double-stranded RNA (Nurnberger, et al., 2004, Boller and Felix, 2009). These immune receptors (PRRs) are transmem-brane proteins located at the cell surface. They typically consist of an extracellular leucine-rich-repeat, a trans-membrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (Monaghan and Zipfel, 2012). Binding of these immune receptors to PAMPs induce PAMP triggered immunity (PTI) by triggering signaling cascades that initiate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), production of antimicrobial compounds, altered ion fluxes, an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, expression of pathogenesis related (defense) genes, protein phosphorylation, changes in protein–protein interactions and localized callose deposition cell walls (Zipfel, 2009).
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Abdulaziz Issa Sep 18, 2022, 9:58 PM Sep 18, 2022, 9:58 PM
The life cycle of plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes consists of two phases: the pre-parasitic and parasitic phase. Pre-parasitic phase, root-knot nematodes...
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Mr Morgan Sep 12, 2022, 4:44 AM Sep 12, 2022, 4:44 AM
This is all about illusions
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Caleb Okechukwu Sep 8, 2022, 6:05 AM Sep 8, 2022, 6:05 AM
An amazing experience research
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Mr Morgan Sep 1, 2022, 9:36 PM Sep 1, 2022, 9:36 PM
These Bones of the upper limb are very unique and inevitably functional.
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ABUGU Aug 31, 2022, 8:18 PM Aug 31, 2022, 8:18 PM
science is the study of human bodies
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Abdulaziz Issa Aug 28, 2022, 6:34 AM Aug 28, 2022, 6:34 AM
To sum up, synthetic biology is more akin to a new engineering discipline, in which new cells or organisms are...
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Abdulaziz Issa Aug 28, 2022, 6:33 AM Aug 28, 2022, 6:33 AM
In summary, in1920s, Morgans and his student Herman J. Muller, stated that genes had to be material particles but indirectly....
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Christopher Aug 27, 2022, 6:06 AM Aug 27, 2022, 6:06 AM
This has to do with highly knowledgeable facts that are far fetched
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Abdulaziz Issa Aug 26, 2022, 2:26 AM Aug 26, 2022, 2:26 AM
In summary, The classical view of the gene concept (Inistrumental gene) begins with the work of Mendel (1866), According Mendel,...
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